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Geographical_Index

Abkhazia – At present a de facto independent republic on the eastern coast of Black Sea. In Soviet era it was known as Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia, later – Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. In 20th century Armenians constituted 16-18% of the population of Abkhazia.

Akhurik – a village in Shirak marz of Armenia, on the right bank of Akhurik River. The village is 1.5km far from the border with Turkey. It was founded in 1922 by Western Armenian Genocide survivors, mainly by people hailing from Mush.

Akhuryan – a town in Shirak marz of the Republic of Armenia and a former district of Soviet Armenia. Nowadays Akhuryan community consists of three settlements – Akhuryan district center, village Akhuryan and New Akhuryan.

Alaverdi – a town in Lori marz of Armenia.

Alexandrapol – the name of modern city of Gyumri in empirial Russia. During the Soviet era it was renamed into Leninakan.

Aleysk – a city in Russia and the administrative center of Aleysk region in Altay. It was established in 1913 as a township next to the railroad lines of Turkestan – Siberia railway. Aleysk obtained a city status in 1939.

Alma Ata – the former capital of Kazakh SSR. In the aftermath of the collapse of USSR Kazakhstan became an independent republic and the capital was moved to Astana. Alma-Ata remains the largest city in Kazakhstan.

Altai – a region (krai) within the Siberian Federal District of Russian Federation (RF), administrative center – Barnaul. The administrative unit was formed in 1937.

Amasia – a district of Armenian SSR. Currently a region in Shirak marz of the Republic of Armenia.

Amiryan – a street in downtown Yerevan.

Arajadzor – (Erchatsor) is a village in Syunik marz of Amrenia. The population of the village is partly native and partly hails from Arajadzor village of Karabakh (1760-70), Goghtn (1805 -1806), Karadagh (1829). During Armenian-Tatar clashes in 1905-1906 and 1918-1921 Melik-Stepanyants family of Arajadzor played a significant role in the fortunes of the local population. Mining engineer Smbat Melik-Stepanyants was known to have hosted and aided Raffi and other devotees of liberation ideas such as Murat of Sebastia, Qeri, Yapon, Arshak Shirinyan, Garegin Nzhdeh and Kaytsak Arakel.

Ardahan – a provincial town in Turkey, in the upper stream of Kura river. In early Middle Ages it was a town in Ardahan province of Gugarq county of Greater Armenia. After the split of Greater Armenia and the fall of royal Arshakuni Dynasty (428) Ardahan was a subordinated by the Byzantine Empire. In 1555, it was annexed to the Ottoman Empire and included in Akhaltsikhe governorate. In the result of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 Ardahan was ceded to Russian Empire and became a part of Ardahan okrug (district) of Kars province. In 1915 the Armenian population of Ardahan was subjected to massacres. It was returned to Turkey by Brest Treaty of 1918, which caused the surviving Amrenians to resettle in Eastern Armenia and Georgia.

Armavir – a city in Krasnodar krai of Russian Federation, located on river Kuban. It was founded in 1839 during the Russian-Caucasian war by the Armenians (known as “Circassian Armenians”) living among Adyghe speaking ethno-tribal formations in North-Western Caucasus. Later, in 1915-23, the population of Armavir increased as the survivors of Armenian Genocide started to settle here.

Artashat – a town in the Ararat marz of Armenia, located on the bank of Araks river, 30km south-east of Yerevan. Artashat was the ancient capital of Greater Armenia in 185 BC – 120 AD. Modern Artashat is situated 5 km north-west of its historic predecessor.

Artik – a town in Shirak marz of Armenia, located on the north-western slope of Mount Aragats. Artik was a well-known settlement of Ayrarat province of Greater Armenia. With the advent of Russian Empire it was included in Alexandrapol uyezd (region) of Erivan governorate. In 1938 it became an urban locality and the center of Artik administrative district.

Artvin – is a town in Turkey, the capital of Artvin province. Artvin was a provincial town but was officially considered a village. It is situated on the left bank of the bottom stream of Chorokh river, to the south of Batumi. In ancienitry it was the center of Chakq district of Tayk region in Greater Armenia. In the 16-19th centuries it was a part of Akhaltsikhe pashalik of Ardvin Province (Sanjak). Ardvin was conquered during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 and was first included into Batumi region and later into Kutaisi governorate. The town was passed over to Turkey in 1921, which was followed by a massacre of its Armenian population.

Aygabats – a village in Shirak marz. It was founded in 1830 by refugees from Verin Basen (Upper Basen) village of Western Armenia. Till 1948 it was called Ikhliari and later – Aygabats.

Baku – the capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan located in the southern part of the Absheron Peninsula on the Caspian coast. In 19th century oil industry rapidly turned Baku into the largest industrial city of the Caucasus, where groups of Tatar (Azerbaijani), Jewish, Armenian and Russian oil producers emerged and, respectively, attrackted large masses of Tatar, Persian, Armenian and Russian proletariat. At the same time Baku was a seasonal labor center for Armenian rural population from the land-poor Southern Caucasus which significantly contributed to the dissemination of revolutionary ideas in Armenia. “The damned oil” created even more favorable ground for confrontations in already complicated Armenian-Tatar inter-ethnic relations. On the one hand the local Russian authorities were orienting revolutionary moods towards national hatred (Armenian-Tatar clashes in 1905-1907), while on the other hand the periodical massacres in neighboring Turkey reverberated among the Caucasian Turkish speaking Tatars (1917-1920 Armenian-Tatar clashes, Armenian massacres in Baku, Shushi and in rural areas). The last Armenian massacres in Baku took place in 1988-1990 culminating in January 1990, when the Armenian community of Baku was no more.

Bardzravan – a village in Syunik marz of Armenia, located on the right bank of Vorotan river. Before Zangezur earthquake of 1931 the village was located on the steep right bank of the river but as the old settlement vanished in the earthquake the new village was built on the upland. The former names of the village are Kyurdik, Yeritsatumb: it was renamed Bardzravan in 1940.

Barnaul – a city in Russia and the administrative center of Altay krai, in the Federal District of Siberia.

Basen – a city and a region in Erzrum province of Turkey. The administrative center of Basen region is the city of Basen situated in about 42km east of Erzrum. In early Middle Ages it was an administrative unit in Ayrarat Province of Greater Armenia streaching along the left side of Araks river, in the place of the present Basinlar. In 19-20 centuries the Russian army captured Basen thrice, but the Ottomans recaptured it every time. During the Russo-Turkish wars (1828-29 & 1877-78) Armenians left Basen en mass and moved to Eastern Armenia. Those who remained were exterminated in 1915 during the Genocide. It shouldn’t be confused with Basen village of Shirak marz of Armenia.

Bash Aparan – the battle of Bash Aparan took place between the Turkish troops invading the newly established Republic of Armenia and the units of Armenian volunteers in 1918, May 22-29, in the vicinity of Aparan town.

Bash village of Basen – former Armenian village in Turkey. Currently known as Baskoyu.

Bash-Shoragyal – a village in Kars province of Turkey. It also used to be called Yerazgavors and Shirakavan. After Kars Province was passed to Turkey the population of Bash-Shoragyal moved to Eastern Armenia.

Batumi – a city in the north-west of Georgia, the administrative center of Autonomous Republic of Adjara. During the Genocide numerous Armenians managed to cross the border in Batumi and move to Eastern Armenia and the Caucasus. Some of the survivors settled in Batumi.

Beirut – the capital and the largest city of Lebanon. A substantial number of Armenian Genocide survivors settled in Beirut and it gradually became one of the cornerstones of Armenian Diaspora. After the civil war in Lebanon a significant number of Armenians moved to the US, Europe and Australia, leaving the comminty in short numbers but at the same time reinforcing the Armenian communities in the countries of relocation.

Budyonnovsk – a city in Stavropol krai of Russian Federation, the administrative center of Budyonnovsk district. It was founded under the name of Holy Cross in 1799 by Armenian resettlers who were granted lands on the left bank of Kuma river by the decree of Emperor Paul I. In 1921 NKVD ordered Holy Cross to be renamed into Prikumsk. In 1935 the Central Executive Committee of USSR decided to rename Prikumsk into Budyonnovsk. Two of the three Armenian churches in Budyonnovsk were demolished in soviet period but the third one – Holy Cross chapel is preserved to our days.

Cherkessk – former name of Starocherkasskaya stanitsa in Aksaysky district of Rostov Oblast of Russian Federation. Until 1805 it was the center of the Don Cossacks and was known as Cherkessk.

Confluence of Kura and Araks rivers – river Kura flows into Araks in the Mughan valley of the Republic of Azerbaijan. In the Soviet era up to 1960 – 1970s Mughan valley was used as a wintering station for the cattle farms from the surrounding areas.

Eastern Armenia – (also known as Persian Armenia, later – Russian Armenia). The unofficial name of the part of Greater Armenia taken over by Persia following the division of Amrenia between Byzantium and Persia in 387. At present Eastern Armenia geographically includes the Republic of Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the right bank of Kura river and Nakhichevan of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and Javakhk area of the Republic of Georgia. In the first half of the 19th century it was gradually conquered by the Russian Empire: in 1813 Shirak, Lori, Ghazakh, Shamshadin, Zangezur, Kapan and Karabakh were given to Russia under Russo-Persian treaty of Gulistan. The treaty of Turkmenchay concluded on February 10, 1828-29 stipulated the cession of Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates to Russia. 8000 Armenian families consisting of 45000 souls from Tabriz, Maku, Urmia, Ardabil, Khoy and Salmast regions migrated and settled in Yerevan, Nakhichevan, Zangezur, Karabakh and elsewhere. In the aftermath of its incorporation into the Russian Empire Eastern Armenia underwent several administrative divisions that ensued further dispersment of the Armenian population. The Armenian region formed in 1828-1840 comprised only the provinces of Nakhichevan and Yerevan without Lori, Tavush, Shirak, Javakhk, Artsakh and Zangezur. In 1844 Viceroyalty was instituted in the Caucasus. Nakhichevan, Erivan, Alexandrapol, Akhaltsikhe were included into Tiflis province, while Zangezur, Shamshadin and Karabakh were included into Shamakhi and later Elisavetpol province. In 1849, by special decree the governorate of Erivan was istituted consisting of five districts – Erivan, Alexandrapol, Nakhichevan, New Bayazet and Ordubad. In 1862 Lori was excluded from the Erivan governorate and was joined to Tiflis. After the second Russo -Turkish War of 1877-78, Kars province consisting of 4 districts (Kars, Kaghzvan, Ardahan and Olti) was formed. Its territory was almost equal to that of Erivan governorate. This administrative structure held until 1917.

Erzrum(Erzrum eyalet, Erzrum vilayet and Karin province) an administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire since 16th century with a center in the town of Erzrum. In present-day Turkey the territory of the historical province is divided into Erzrum, Yerznka and Aghri provinces. In 1830-1860 Erzrum province was extended at the expense of neighboring provinces and included most of the territory of Western Armenia (also called Ermenistan). In 1873, it was divided into Erzurum, Chelder, Kars, Bayazet, Van, Mush and Yerznka sub-provinces. In 1828-29, 1877-78 and in 1914-16 the Russian armies captured most of the territory of Erzurum, although it was consequently returned to the Ottomans. 55-60 thousand Armenians from Erzurum province relocated to Russian Armenia and other Russian territories in Transcaucasus. Small scale migrations took place in 1854-55, 1877-78 and in 1890s.

In order to artificially reduce the population figures the Sublime Port separated the thickly Armenian populated Van and Mush provinces from Erzrum in 1980s. In the beginning of the 20th century the province included sub-provinses of Erzrum, Bayazet and Yerznka.

In consequence of recurrent displacements, forced Islamization and especially massacres of Armenians in 1894-96 at the end of 19th century the Armenian population of Erzurum was significantly reduced. The majority was forcibly relocated and massacred on Erzrum-Derjan-Yerznka-Kamakhin road in 1915. The survivors managed to reach Eastern Armenia and Arab countries.

Etchmiadzin – the city Vagarshapat is often called Etchmiadzin after the the spiritual and administrative center of the Armenian Apostolic Church – Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, situated in Vagarshapat. The city was officially called Etchmiadzin in the Soviet period. For Armenians Etchmiadzin served as a second capital throughout ages. The first school as well as Matenadaran (library of manuscripts) were opened here.

Georgievsk – a city in Stavropol krai founded by Russia in the period of the Caucasian campaigns. In 1777 St. George castle was founded on the Azov-Mozdo defence line which soon became famous for Georgievsk Treaty concluded between Russia and Georgia in 1783. The treaty established East Georgian kingdom as a protectorate of Russia. It used to be the administrative center of Caucasian province in 1802-1822.

Ghazvin – city in the north of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In 16th century it was the capital of Safavid dynasty.

Goris – is a town in Syunik marz of Armenia. Modern Goris is located in the site of Melik-Huseinyans’ former residence. In 1870, upon the reccomendation of Manouchar Bek Melik-Huseinyan the Russian authorities decided to build a new settlement which received a status of town immediately after its completion and was named Goris. It was the center of Zangezur region of Elisabethpol governorate. The old quarter of Goris or Kyores village is located in the eastern part of the city, where there is an entire complex of cave dwellings.

Greater Armenia – an administrative unit and a state in the Armenian Highland in BC 331-AD 428. It was one of the three administrative units (Lesser Armenia, Tsopk and Greater Armenia) populated by Armenians in the Armenian Highlands in BC 4-2cc. Greater Armenia broke free from Persian Seleucid rule shortly after the campaign of Alexander the Great and reached its hayday during the reign of Tigran the Great (King of Greater Armenia BC 95-55). In that period Greater Armenia and Persian Achaemenid Empire were considered the most powerful states of the East. Greater Armenia existed through periods of prosperity and reversal up until 4th century AD.

Greater Armenia had 15 provinces – Aghdznik, Ayrarat, Artsakh (see Karabakh), Upper Armenia, Gugark, Korchayq, Mokq, Persian Armenia, Syunik, Tayk, Turuberan, Utik, Vaspurakan, Tsopk (Fourth Hayk) and Paytakaran.

During the reign of Trdat the Great of Arshakuni Dynasty Greater Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as state religion in 301. In 387 Great Armenia was divided between the Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia. The Arshakuni Kings continued to rule in the Persian part of Armenia until 428. With this division provisional terms of Western Armenia (Roman, then the Turkish part of Armenia later known as Turkahayastan, Tachkahayastan) and Eastern Armenia (Persian part, then Russian part, also called Parskahayastan, Russahayastan) came into use.

Gyumri – (former Kumayri, Alexandrapol, Leninakan) is the second largest city in Armenia. It is located in the north-west of Armenia, in Shirak marz. Having direct railway connection with Kars, Gyumri sheltered lots of Western Armenian refugees during and following the Genocide.

Hardonk, Ardonk, Artonk – one of the former Armenian villages in Mush region of Bitlis province of Ottoman Empire. Most of the Armenian population of the village perished in the Armenian Genocide of 1915. Those who survived settled in the Republic of Armenia.

Hatsik – one of the former Armenian villages in Mush region of Bitlis province of Ottoman Empire. The creator of the Armenian alphabet Mesrop Mashtots was born in this village (in 361/362 – 440). Most of the Armenian population of the village perished in the Armenian Genocide of 1915, those who survived settled in the Republic of Armenia. Not to confuse with Hatsik village in Shirak marz (Hatsikavan (Maisyan station)), which was founded in 1820 by resettlers from Basen, Mush and Kars.

Haykavan – village in Shirak marz of Armenia. One segment of the population hails from resettlers from Kars province, Basen and Mush regions of the Ottoman Empire, who arrived here in 1829-1830. The village was also known as Bajoghli, Bajoghlu.

Hayrenyats – village in Shirak marz of Armenia. The village was founded in 1828 by resettlers from Kars province, Basen and Mush regions of the Ottoman Empire. In the past it was called Songurli, Sangyar. In 1946 it was renamed Hayrenyats.

Hertev – formerly Armenian village in Ottoman Empire, in Basen region of Erzurum province. After the Genocide of 1915 survivors from the village settled in Eastern Armenia.

Hoktemberyan – Soviet name for the town of Armavir, the administrtive center of Armavir marz of Armenia. Previously it was also known as Sardarabat, Sardarapat. It was renamed Hoktemberyan in October of 1935 in honor of the October Revolution. In 1990 it was renamed Armavir.

Horom (Horom, Khorum, Khourum, Orom) – a village in Shirak marz of Armenia. The population patrly hails from resettlers from Kars province, who arrived here in 1829-1830.

Ijevan – a city and the administrative center of Tavush marz of Armenia. The city was established around an inn formerly called caravanserai and built on a trade route stretching from the capital of Armenia Dvin to Tiflis.

Isahakyan – a village in Shirak marz of Armenia. Isahakyan (former Ghazarapat) was established after the Russo-Persian war in 1826-1828 by Armenians from Bayazet, Khnus etc. It was called Ghazarapat after Ghazar – a war hero and army commander. In 1949 it was renamed Isahakyan in honor of poet Avetik Isahakyan who was born there.

Jugha, Julfa – a city in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, an esclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan (az. Culfa). In Armenian manuscripts it is first referred to in the 5thcentury (Movses Khorenatsi) in the descriptions of the events of 95-55 BC. In Middle Ages Jugha emerged as a prosperous town of merchants particularly famous for silk trade. In 1604 by order of Shah Abbas of Persia its population was displaced and moved to the depths of Persia.

In 1828 Nakhichevan was annexed by the Russian Empire. In the Soviet period Jugha was included into the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic within Soviet Azerbaijan and its Armenian population of was steadily forced to leave. In 1988 Jugha and Nakhichevan were emptied of Armenians.

Armenians left numerous significant cultural monuments in Julfa including thousands of handmade cross-stones. In the Soviet period they were gradually being destroyed. In the period of independence of Azerbaijan in 2005-2006 the Armenian town cemetery of Julfa was completely destroyed together with the thousands of cross- stones. The heavy construction machinery wiped the cross-stones off the face of the earth and the cemetery area was turned into a shooting ground.

Kanaker – a district in the north-east of Yerevan. It is one of the oldest settlements in Armenia.

Kansk – a city in Krasnoyarsk krai. It is considered the non-official center of eastern Krasnoyarsk krai.

Kapan, Ghapan – town and administrative center of Syunik marz of Armenia. The first references about Kapan are traced to the 5th century. At the end of the 10th century it was the capital of Syunik Kingdom. In 1103 the town was destroyed by the Seljuk Turks. In 1170 after the fall of Syunik Kingdom Kapan diminished into a village. Since the second half of the 16th century it was known as Ghapan. In 1938 Kapan grew into a well-established town from a mere workers’ settlement. It became a sizable industrial center in Soviet Armenia.

Karahunj – a village in the vicinity of Goris town, in Syunik marz of Armenia. Karahunj is famous for its revolutionary past. Many residents of Karahundj used to work in the oil fields of Baku and were influenced by Bolshevik sentiments. Professional revolutionaries such as E. Sevyan and G. Ghazarian were born in Karahunj. This was a venue of extensive struggle between Dashnaks struggling for the independence of Armenia and the supporters of Bolshevik Revolution.

Kars, Ghars – city in the east of the Republic of Turkey, on the right bank of river Kars – the stream of river Akhuryan. The administrative center of Kars province. Historical Kars was within Vanand region of Ayrarat province of Greater Armenia. In 928 – 961 it was the capital of Armenia. Kars is one of the medieval capitals of Armenia preserved up today. In 17-19th centuries it was the center of the Turkish Kars Pashalik, which in turn was part of Erzurum Vilayet. In 1876 it became the center of the newly formed Kars Vilayet. After Russo -Turkish War of 1877 – 78 it was surrendered to Russian Empire. Kars was cleansed of the Armenian population after the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1923. Many people of Kars ascestry live now in Shirak marz of Armenia.

Kazakhstan – a republic in Central Asia. Between 1917-1936 Kazakhstan was an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In 1936 Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic emerged as one of the constistuent republics of USSR. Atfer the dissolution of soviet Union in 1991 it is a sovereign state – Republic of Kazakhstan.

Khndzoresk – a village in Syunik marz of Armenia. The old Khndzoresk was the largest village of Eastern Armenia in the 10th century. According to the testimony of scribe Martiros, there were 3000 households in Kndzoresk. The village was engaged in the liberation movement of David Bek, and Kndzoresk fortress served as a station for Mkhitar Sparapet’s troops in 1728-30. In 19th century the population of the village made 4200 people and in the 20th century it was 8300. In 1913 it had 27 stores, 3 dye-houses, leather making workshops and 7 schools.

Khor Virap – village in Ararat marz of Armenia, bordering with Turkey, on the left bank of Araks River. The 5th century Khor Virap monastery is located here. The legend goes it was built near the deep pit of royal prison where Gregory the Illuminator spent 14 years during the persecutions of Christians at the end of the 3rd century.

Kirovabad (currently Ganja) – city in the Republic of Azerbaijan. According to the earliest references the city was known as Gandzak. It was founded in Greater Armenia’s Utik province annexed by Persia and incorporated, along with Artsakh, into Persia’s Albanian Satrapy in the beginning of the 5th century. In 9 – 12th centuries Gandzak served as the seat for Albanian Catholicosate. By 13thcentury it became a populous city and Armenian and Iranian cultural center. The Armenian historiographers Hovhannes Sarkavag, Kirakos Gandzaketsi, Iranian-speaking poet Nizami and other figures of medieval culture were born in Gandzak. In 1236 Tartar-Mongols captured Gandzak, ravaged the city and massacred its people. A detailed description of these events is found in works of Kirakos Gandzaketsi.

In 18th century Ganja was the center of Ganja Khanate: Gandzak came to be pronounced as Ganja (Gəncə) in Turkish. In 1804 it was annexed to the Russian Empire and was renamed Elisabethpol. In 1868 it became the administrative center of Elisabethpol governorate. In 1918-1920 in the period of Independent Musavat Azerbaijan the name Ganja was restored. In the Soviet period, in 1935, the city was renamed Kirovabad in honor of Bolshevik Kirov. In 1892 40.8 % of the population of Elisabethpol were Armenians who lived side by side with Caucasian Tatars (Azerbaijanis), Russians, Georgians etc. After the Armenian massacres of 1905-1906 the city had been divided into two ethnic neighborhoods. Armenians took the right bank of the river while Tartars settled on the left bank. The two sides were colloqually called the “Armenian part” and the “Turkish part”. Massacres continued in 1918-1920 and the census of 1926 revealed that the city’s Armenian population had declined to 29.4 %. As a consequence of anti-Armenian policy and activities implemented in Soviet Azerbaijan in 1988-89 the Armenians of the city abandoned it for good. In 1991 the city was officially renamed Ganja.

Kirovakan – former soviet name of the city of Vanadzor in the north of Armenia. It is the administrative center of Lori marz. The city was named Kirovakan after Bolshevik Kirov killed in 1935. Previously it held the names Gharagilise, Karakilisa, Karakles, Gharakhilisa the Great, Gharaklis, Martunakan and Martunashen. In 1991 it was renamed Vanadzor.

Kond – a district in Yerevan

Krasnodar krai – Russian federal subject in North-Western Caucasus with administrative center in the city of Krasnodar (formerly Yekaterinodar). It is administered within Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation.

Krasnovodsk – city in Turkmenistan (current official name – Turkmenbashi). The city was established by the Russian Empire in 1717 around a fortress on the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. 150 years later the castle was reinforced in order to be utilized during for the forthcoming annexation of Bukhara and Khiva Khanates as well as compeling the obedience of Turkmen nomads. In 1869 it became a Russian military base, which expanded into an urban settlement and the administrative center of Transcaspian oblast (Закаспийскаяобласть). The town was inhabited by military personnel, officers, Persian and Armenian merchants. With time Krasnovodsk got connected with Baku by a ferry-boat and became a major marine traffic route linking Central Asia with Baku. Krasnovodsk played a significant role in the fate of the Armenian people throughout the previous century. Numerous Armenians, particularly those from Karabakh, settled in Krasnovodsk and helped developed the city by means of their active engagement in trade. Moreover, the victims of escalated racism and Armenophobia raging in Baku between January 7-19, 1990 were sheltered here. In Baku soldiers of the Soviet Army used to identify the hiding Armenians, transport them to the port inside tanks and send them to Krasnovodsk by ferries.

Krasnoyarsk – city and a region in the Russian Federation, the largest cultural, educational and economic center of Eastern Siberia. Krasnoyarsk krai is the second largest federal subject in Russia. The city of Krasnoyarsk is the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk krai. The city was established in 1628 and is the largest of Siberian old cities.

Kuban – geographical region in Southern Russia accomodating the areas along Kuban river flow from Black Sea basin to the North-Western Caucasus. The name Kuban emerged during Russian colonization of the Caucasus in the period of resettlements of the Cossacks to Kuban by order of Catherine the Great. Following the Bolshevik revolution and the ensued civil war the region became a stronghold for anti-bolshevik White Guards who proclaimed it Kuban People’s Republic, with the center in Yekaterinodar (current Krasnodar).

Kuma – a river in Northern Caucasus.

Leninakan – former, soviet name of Gyumri – the administrative center of Shirak marz of Armenia.

Lernadzor – (former Krdikants, Tirnik) a village in Syunik marz of Armenia. In 1906, 1918-1921, during Armenian-Tatar clashes the village actively participated in the armed self-defence battles.

Makhachkala – the capital of Russian federal subject Republic of Dagestan.

Marseille – a port city in the south of France, on the Mediterranean coast. In 1915 many survivors of the Armenian Genocide settled in Marseilles and formed the Armenian community of the city.

Meghri – a town in Syunik marz of Armenia located on the border with the Islamic Republic of Iran. Meghri is known for continuous struggle and activity throughout history. During David Bek’s uprising the population of Meghri led heroic battles against the Ottoman armies. In 1906 Meghri squads saved from destruction the population of Verin Dzor in Kapan.

Mordava – a river in Russia, the right stream of Volga River

Mordovia, Mordovian Republic – federal subject of Russia with capital in Saransk. The population is made of Russians, as well as Moksha and Erzya ethnic groups who have linguistic and genealogic relation to Hungarians.

Mountainous Armenia (also Independent Syunik, Autonomous Zangezur) – an unrecognized republic in the South Caucasus that existed from December 1920 to July 1921. It was procaimed in 1920, December 25, by First all-Zangezur Congress held in Tatev monastery. The Second all-Zangezur Congress (April 27, 1921) renamed the region into Mountainous Armenia while the self-proclaimed state of “Mountainous Armenia” was called the Republic of Armenia.

It was established in conditions of the collapse of Russian Empire, Bolshevik Revolution, the Armenian-Muslim clashes raging in the Southern Caucasus, the massacres and the resistance to the invasion of the Turkish regular army and armed Bolshevik forces into Armenia.

A leading figure behind this resistance was the commander of the self-defence armed forces of Zangezur Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan – Nzhdeh.

Armed units of rebels were formed in every village of Zangezur and were known as Nzhdeh’s brothers in arms. In Soviet Armenia, however, they were considered enemies of the people, anti-Soviet, nationalist and pro-Nzhdeh and were suffered from a number of political persecutions. Political repressions in Zangezur mainly targeted the participants of national liberation struggle which is clrealy reflected in the family stories of our research participants from Syunik.

Mozhaysk – a town in Russia, located in the upper stream of Moscow River, 110 km west of Moscow.

Mush – a town and a province in the eastern part of the Republic of Turkey. The Mush plain is also known to Armenians as Taron. In 885 Mush-Taron in the domain of Bagratuni Kingdom. In 13-14 centuries it was dominated by the Mongol and Turkmen and later by Ak-koyunlu tribes. In 16th century Safavid Persia conqured most of Western Armenia (including Mush) from Ak-koyunlu tribes but later lost these lands to Turkey. The Amasia Treaty of 1555 and Kasri Shirin (Kasre Shirin) Treaty of 1639 reinforced the division of Armenia into Western and Eastern parts respectively between Turkey and Persia. Mush–Taron fell to the Ottoman Empire and later became part of the Turkish Republic. The Armenin population of Mush almost entirely perished in the Armenian Genocide of 1915. Very few survivors managed to escape to Eastern Armenia.

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic – (also, Artsakh Republic) is constitutionally and de facto independent, sovereign but internationally unrecognized state. It is situated in the north-east of the Lesser Caucasus and Armenian Highland. Its territory largely coincides with Artsakh province of Greater Armenia. After the fall of Arshakuni dynasty in 387 and the division of Greater Armenia between Byzantine and Persia, Artshakh and the neighboring Utik province were unitedmerged by Persia into Aghvank (Caucasian Albania) situated on the left bank of Kura river. In 7 – 9th centuries, it was under the domination of Arab Caliphate, in 9-12 centuries ruled by the Bagratuni Kings. In 1387, Artsakh together with the rest of Southern Caucasus suffered from Tamerlane invasions. The name Karabakh entered into circulation effective that period.

At the end of the 15th century Artsakh was under the rule of Turkmens; in 1555 under the domination of Sefyan Persia and was governed by Armenian Princes bearing the title “Melik” since the 15th century (in Eastern Armenia the feudals risen from the remnants of native nobility and having administrative privileges were called Meliks). In 1750 Panah Ali Khan from the Jivanshir Turkic speaking tribe assumed power in Karabakh, establishing the Khanate of Karabakh. He settled in the newly-built castle of Shushi. In 1805 Karabakh merged into the Russian Empire, which was enacted in 1813 by Gulistan Treaty.

In 1822 Karabakh Khanate was abolished. In the period of 1868-1917 it was a part of Elisabethpol governorate of the Russian Empire. Approximately at this period Russian adjective «нагорный» (mountainous) was attached to the name “Karabakh” to describe its mountainous terrain.

For almost a century Artsakh-Karabakh lived in relative peaceful and therefore prosper life. In 1918 Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence and Karabakh became a disputed territory between the two countries. On July 22, 1918, the first Assembly of Artsakh Armenians convened in Shushi declared Nagorno-Karabakh “independent administrative-political territory”.

At the same time Azerbaijani authorities declared Artsakh a part of Azerbaijan and appointed Khosrov Sultanov the governor-general of Karabakh and Zangezur.

Resistance to that decision resulted in Armenian massacres. The Turkish-Azerbaijani army invaded Karabakh in 1920, March 22 and perpetrated terrible massacres of Armenians in Shushi, ruined and torched the city. In the aftermath of sovietization of Armenia and Azerbaijan after long-lasting disputes and threats a decision was made to cede Karabakh to Azerbaijan declaring it an autonomous region.

At the end of 1980s a movement aiming at the reunification of Nagorno-Karabakh and Soviet Armenia took shape. In 1991-1992 a wide-scale war broke out between the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh and the Azerbaijani authorities. The Armenians of Karabakh managed to maintain the major part of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh as well as to liberate its surrounding territories. The eastern parts of Martakert and Martuni as well as Shahoumyan region populated by Armenians fell under the control of Azerbaijan. In May 1994 ceasefire was signed between Nagorno- Karabakh, Azerbaijan and Armenia that has been in force up to now.

Nakhichevan – is Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (NAR) within the Republic of Azerbaijan. In 387, consequent to the division of Greater Armenia between the Byzantine Empire and Persia, Nakhichevan fell to Persia. In 7-9 cc it was included in Armenia Viceroyalty of Arabs. In the 9th centurySeljuk Turks invaded the area and in the 12-14th centuries Tartar-Mongol rule was established there. In the 15th century the region was under control of Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu tribes. In the 16-18th centuries it became a military arena for the Turkish-Persian wars. In 1604-05 the Persian Shah Abbas I forcedly deported a large number of Armenians from this area to the depths of Persia. The territories of the displaced Armenians were populated by Muslim settlers.

In mid-18th century Nakhichevan Khanate emerged, which was relinquished to the Russian Empire by Turkmenchay Treaty of 1828 (between 1828-1940 Nakhichevan, Erivan Khanate and Ordubad region were incorporated into Armenian province; in 1849-1918 they formed Erivan governorate).

After the collapse of the Russian Empire it was included into the Republic of Armenia in 1918-1920. Pressured by Turkey, the USSR ceded Nakhichevan province to Azerebaijan by Moscow Treaty of March 16, 1921. The treaty envisioned that Nakhichevan will not be turned over to a third party, a point which was further reinforced by Kars Treaty of October 13, 1921.

In 1923 Nakhichevan Autonomous Krai was created, which became Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Azerbaijani SSR on February 9, 1924. After the collapse of Soviet Union (August 30, 1991) it was renamed into Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

In 1912 45% of Nakhichevan’s population were Armenians. The Armenian population of Nakhichevan continuously dwindled throughout Soviet years and as of 1980 the number of Armenians was reduced to a mere 1.5-2 %. In 1988-89 the last remnants of Nakhichevan Armenians were forced to flee to the Republic of Armenia.

Nor Kyank – village in Shirak Marz of Armenia. The former variations of the name were: Mashtli, Machdli, Mach[e]dli, Machtali, Machidli, Majetli, Majitli, Majitlu, Mechitlu, Mechedli, Mechitli, Mejidli and Mejidlu. The population is partly local and partly came from Kars and Khnus in 1829-30. There is a 6-7 century St.Grigor Illuminator church in the village

Norilsk – city in the north of Krasnoyarsk Krai of Russia. It is considered one of the most ecologically polluted cities in the world. Though Norilsk doesn’t have the status of a “closed administrative-territorial district” since 2001 the foreign nationals can visit Norilsk only upon the permission of the authorities.

Novaya Zemlya (New Land) – archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, between the Barents and Karsk Seas. It consists of two large islands – Northern and Southern and a number of smaller islands. Cape Flissingsky located in the northern part of the Northern Island is considered to be the easternmost point of Europe. In literature it is called “Land of Winds”. Novaya Zemlya is a local self-governing district in Arkhangelsk Oblast.

Novosibirsk – a city in Russian Federation, the third most populous city after Moscow and St. Petersburg. It was established in 1893 and recieved town status in 1903. Novosibirsk is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District. It is considered the unofficial the capital of Siberia.

Omsk – a city in Russia and the administrative center of Omsk region. Omsk is situated in the West Siberian plain at the confluence of Irtysh and Om Rivers. In 1918-1920 it was the capital of the anti-revolutionary Russian state –White Russia.

Orenburg – a city in Russia and the administrative center of Orenburg Region located south of the Ural Mountains. It was founded in 1743. Between 1938 – 1957 the town was called Chkalov.

Pemzashen – a village in Shirak marz of Armenia. It was founded in 1828-30 by Armenian settlers from Mush and Basen. There is a unique complex of early medieval churches in the village center.

Rostov – Rostov-on-Don is a city in the south of the European part of Russia, and the administrative center of Rostov region and the Southern Federal District of Russia. The story of its foundation is related to the establishment of New Nakhichevan settlement in 1779. New Nakhichevan was populated by 12.600 Armenians from the Crimea who were relocated to the southern plains of Russia to boost the region’s demography and economic life. The town of New Nakhichevan and 5 Armenian villages were established around the Castle A. Dmitri (later – Rostov-on-Don).Very soon New Nakhichevan became one of the most prosperous and prominent cities of southern Russia as well as one of the cultural centers of the Armenian people of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Armenian writers M. Nalbandian and R. Patkanian, painter Martiros Saryan, writer and publicist Marietta Shahinian, architect Mark Grigoryan, politician Alexander Myasnikian and many others were born in New Nakhichevan, Rostov. The Armenian cultural tradition is still lively in Rostov.

Saratov – a city in the south-east of the European part of Russia, the administrative center of Saratov Region.

Sardarapat, Battle of Sardarapat – the Battle of Sardarapat took place on May 21-27, 1918 in the vicinity of Sardarapat village of Armenia, where Armenian regular troops and militia emgaged the Turkish troops invading Eastern Armenia.

Sarov – a city in Russia, bordering Mordovian Republic. Sarov was established in 1691.

Semipalatinsk (currently Semey) – a city in Kazakhstan located on both banks of Irtish river. Was established in 1718 as a fortress – “a fortress of seven castles” (Семипалатная крепость), which is now called the Old Fortress and is one of the recreational areas of the city. In 19th century the city of Semipalatinsk was an exile destination for political dissidents. The Soviet Union carried out its first nuclear bomb testing in Semipalatinsk on August 29 1949. 456 tests of nuclear weaponry took place in the nuclear polygon of Semipalatinsk between 1949 -1989.

In 1991 under the pressure exerted by “Nevada-Semipalatinsk” anti-nuclear movement led by Kazakh writer and social activist Olzhas Suleymenov the nuclear polygon was closed. The name Semipalatinsk was changed into Semey by presidential order of June 21, 2007.

Shaghat – a village in Syunik marz of Armeia. The population is partly local and partly came from Maragha, Khoy and Salmast in 1828-29. Shaghat was one of the key settlements of Historical Syunik. At the beginning of 20th century it had to resort to armed defence during Armenian-Tatar clashes and for that reason people of shatagh were frequently targeted by the Bolshevik regime.

Shahali Ellar – a recreation center and children camp in Shirak marz.

Shinuhayr – (Hayrashen, Shenahayr, Shinahayr, Shenotayr, Shenhir, Shenher, Shenherk, Shinher, Shnhers, Shnoherk, Shner, Shnoyherk) a village in Syunik marz of Armenia. It is one of the ancient villages in Armenia. The schooling tradition in the illage is over 550 years old.

Shirak – one of the marzes of Amenia, with administrative center in Gyumri. Shirak marz inherited its name from Shirak region of Ayrarat province of historic Armenia which, however, occupied a larger territory. Shirak borders with two foreign states –Turkey from the west and Georgia from the north. Having remaining under Persian control for a long period Shirak, along with other territories of Eastern Armenia – Lori, Kazakh, Shamshadin, Zangezur and Karabakh, was passed over to Russian Empire in 1813 by the Russo-Persian Treaty concluded in the Karabakh village of Gulistan.

The Georgian territory adjacent to Shirak is populated mainly by Armenians. The major part of the population in the settlements of Shirak Marz bordering with Turkey are resettlers from Western Armenia or refugee survivors of the Armenian Genocide, particularly from Erzrum, Basen, Mush and Kars. The population of Shirak suffered greatly at the hand of the Turkish army in 1918 and 1920. Tens of thousands of people were killed or emigrated after the disastrous earthquake of 1988.

Shishkert – (Shishkert, Ishkert, Shashget and Shket) village in Syunik marz of Armenia, at the foot of Mount Khustup. It had a promonent role in David-Bek’s emancipation struggle and was famous for its troops. Following an earthquake in 1968 the village was moved to an area called Khachatap located in front of Tsav village. At the end of 1980 the old village was partially restored.

Shorindzor (Shordzor) – green but rocky area in the north-eastern outskirts of Goris. Traces of an ancient settlement are still visible to the naked eye – ruins of old chapels, caves, etc. Shorindzor river runs through the area. In 1930s, during the political repressions, arrestees from Goris prison were gunned down and buried here.

Siberia – region in the north of Asia. The territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China.

Along with various policies and processes aimed at populating the vast and spasely inhabited land of Syberia, the expanding Russian Empire adopted the policy of exiling criminals and political prisoners to Siberia and thus inhabiting the country. The tradition remained alive also in Soviet period.

In Armenia the word “Sibir” (Siberia) was perceived as synonymous with “exile” and therefore and exile destination regardless of geographical area was called “Sibir”. In their narratives people often spoke of “Sibir” and only after scrupulos clarifications did we learn that they actually reffered to Central Asia, another major exile destination, or some other locality.

Stepanakert – the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh. The village Vararakn, which is currently located in the premises of the town was the starting point of urban expansion in the beginning of the 19th century. The town was renamed Stepanakert in honor of Communist Stepan Shanhumyan who was gunned together with 26 Commissars of Baku.

Sukhumi – the capital of Abkhazia.

Svarants – (Suarants, Suvarants, and Suarlu) village in Syunik marz of Armenia, near the village of Tatev. It is the historical village of Tsur (Tsuraberd), which rebelled against the ruling princes of Syunik and the monastery of Tatev in 915. The legend goes that the name Svarants is related to Tamerlane’s invasions. After lengthy struggle the population of Tzur was deceived and gave up. The Mongol commander promised the people of Tsur their lives he didn’t live up to his word. Villigers were driven to the field and buried alive there. Fron then on the place was called “black people’s shen = Sev+arants Shen” meaning a village of disgraced people or a village of Sevarants – Svarants.

Syunik – a marz in Armenia. Historically Syunik was one of the 15 provinces of Greater Armenia. The domain of Syunik princes extended over the present Vayots Dzor and Gegharkunik marzes of Armenia, most of Nakhichevan and part of the present Nagorno-Karabakh.

In the span of modern history Armenians of Syunik, led by Davit Bek rebelled against the Persian Khans ruling the region and managed to secure relative independence.

Under the leadership of Garegin Nzhdeh Syunik struggled against Alexandrapol treaty (Decmeber 2, 1920) that provisioned surrender of Zangezur to Azerbaijan. Syunik was declared independent Mountainous Armenia (1920 -1921 July-December). Due to that a lot of rebels, assaociates of the 1920 February uprising against the Bolsheviks in Armenia were able to retreat to Syunik and escape to Persia.

Taron – historic region in Turuberan province of Greater Armenia. Taron was often identified with the Mush Valley. In 9-6 centures BC Taron was one of the provinces of the first united state in the Armenian Highland – Urartu. Following the adoption of Christianity in 301 AD the Armenian nobility and people were baptized in the ancient sanctuaries of Taron. In 5-6 AD Taron was a prominent center of the Armenian liberation movement against Sassanid Persia. In 6-8 centuries the lords of Taron – the house of Mamikonyans – annexed the regions of Khuyt and Sasun. In 591 after the division of Armenia between Byzantiumm and Persia Taron appeared under the Byzantine domination. In 774-775 after suffering heavy defeats in the liberation battles against the Arab troops the Mamikonyans moved from Taron to Byzantium. Taron was ceded to the Bagratunis. In 13-15 centuries Taron was controlled by Tartar-Mongol and Turkmen tribes. By Turkish-Persian Treaties (1555 – Amasia and 1639-Kasre Shehiri) Taron was ceded to the Ottoman Sultanate.

Tashkent, Tashkend – the capital of Uzbekistan. It is the largest city of Central Asia by its population. The name Tashkent (“stone settlement”, “stone town”) emerged with the advent of Turkic speaking people in 11th century. In 14-15th centuries Tashkent was a part of Tamerlane’s empire; was joined to the Russian Empire in 1865. During the Bolshevik revolution Tashkent was famous for his revolutionary support. It was the capital of Turkmen Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic between 1918-1924. In 1930 Uzbekistan’s capital moved from Samarkand to Tashkent.

Tatev – village in Syunik marz of Armenia. The village was named Tatev after the monastery of Tatev situated near the village. The legend goes that the name Tatev is linked to the name of Apostle Thaddeus’s follower Yevstateni (or Staten) who preached Christianity in Armenia, particularly in Syunik. Tatev monastery was founded in 4th century and with time was replenished by new churches. In 1390-1435 the prominent Tatev university was accomodated here. In the modern history of Armenia the village of Tatev became famous for its role in the liberation struggle in Syunik/Zangezur. Two All-Zangezur Congresses were called here in December 1920 and April 1921 respectively.

Tegh – a village in Syunik marz of Armenia. Tegh was founded in the 10th century by Queen Shahandukht of Syunik. In Middle Ages it was one of the largest and most prominent settlements in Syunik.

Tehran – the capital of Persia since 1785 and currently the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Tiflis – Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia and one of the biggest settlements in the Caucuses. The big Armenian community of Tbilisi had a crusial role in the development of Armenian culture of the 19-20thcenturies. Numerous Genocide survivor Armenians settled in Tiflis. They were later sinisterly affected by Stalin’s decree on the exile of former “Turkish nationals”.

Tomsk – a city in Russian Federation and the administrative center of the homonymous district and region. Tomsk is the oldest educational center in Syberia.

Tsav – a village in Syunik marz of Armenia, on the right bank of Basuta river. The village is mentioned in the historical sources from the 18th century and in Ghukas Sebastatsi’s work “Selected Stories of David Bek”. The population of the village was forcedly relocted after David Bek’s defeat, while the village was resettled at the end of the 19th century by Verindzor villagers.

Turkmenistan – country in Central Asia. It borders Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran from the south, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan from the north and Caspian Sea from the west. In the Soviet period it was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union. In the 1920-1930s many Armenians especially from Nagorno-Karabakh and Zangezur settled in Turkmenistan, some to avoid political persecutions, others looking for working opportunities.

Uzbekistan – the Republic of Uzbekistan is located in the central part of Central Asia. In the north and north-east it borders Kazakhstan, in the north-east with Kirgizstan, in the west with Turkmenistan, in the south with Tajikistan and Afghanistan. The capital city is Tashkent.

Venice – a city and a port in Italy on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The city’s historic center is located in the Venetian lagoon on 118 islands, which are separated from each other by 150 channels and tributaries. St. Lazarus Island is situated in the waters of Venice Gulf and since 1717 has been fully occupied by Mekhitarian Order of the Armenian Catholic Church. The founders of the order and their descendants have extensively worked on Oriental Sudies, published Armenian historical, philological and literary works and related materials. The depositories of St. Lazarus contain around 150,000 books. The order has an exclusive collection of manuscripts containing more than 4,000 Armenian manuscripts as well as Arab, Indian and Egyptian pieces collected or otherwise acquired by the monks.

Verishen – (Gorayk, Gedisha, Yerishen, Old Goris, Verinshen and presently Verishen) village in Syunik marz of Armenia. It is one of the oldest settlements in Armenia.

Vladivostok – a city in Russian Federation and a port in the Far East, on the cost of the Japanese Sea. It is the administrative center of Primorsky krai (region).

Volga – a river in the European part of Russia, one of the world’s largest rivers and the largest river of Europe.

Vorkuta – a town in Russian Federation, in the north of the Komi Republic. In the indigenous Nenets language the word Vorkuta means “many bears”, “place of bears”. It was established in 1930 and was granted a town status in 1943. In 1930-1950 Vorkuta was the largest Gulag camp (until 1938 it was called Ukhta – Pechora camp, then Vorkuta camp). In 1951, 73.000 people were concentrated in Vorkutlag Camp. In 1953 the town witnessed a major uprising by the inmates. The town remained an exile destination up to 1980s, even after the elimination of Gulag.

Western Armenia – (also Turkahayastan or Tachkahayastan). The unofficial name of the part of Greater Armenia taken over by Byzantium following the division of Amrenia between Byzantium and Persia in 387. The emergence of the Ottoman Empire and the ensuing chain of Ottoman-Persian wars in the 16thcentury endorsed the former division thus leaving Western Armenia in the confines of Ottoman Empire. The elayet comprising most of Western Armenia was officially called and appeared in maps as Ermenistan (Armenia).

Under the treaty of Adrianople which concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki provinces were conceded to the Russian Empire. Approximately 90 thousand people from the areas occupied by Russian troops but eventually returned to the Ottomans migrated to the territories controlled by the Russians: people from Erzrum settled in Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki, those hailing from Kars – in Shirak and Talin regions, people from Bayazet – around the shores of lake Sevan.

In the wake of 1877-78 Russo-Turkish war and especially after the Berlin Treaty of 1878 which tasked the Turkish authorities with implementation of broad reforms in Armenia, Sultan Abdul Hamid II pushed for development of a political program to solve the Armenian question by means of exodus and massacre. In 1891 Kurdish Hamidieh cavalry regiments were formed, who executed Armenian massacres in 1894-1896 killing more than 300,000 of Western Armenians. At the same time the administrative regions of Ermenistan were redesigned so as the number of dwindled Armenians would still not outweigh the number of local Kurds.

During World War I the Young Turk government committed a full-scale genocide against the Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire. The Russian armies had captured a substantial part of Western Armenia between 1915-1916, however, after the Bolshevik Revolution Russia withdrew from the war with Brest-Litovsk treaty in 1918. The treaty not only left the surviving Amrenians exposed to continuing genocidal agenda of Turkey but also stipulated for withdrawal of Russian forces from the territories gained in 1877-1878 Russio-Turkish war (Kars, Ardahan and Batumi provinces). The small number of Western Amrenians who survived the Genocide either remained hidded or followed the Russian troops towards Eastern Armenia, Georgia, the Caucasus. As a result not only the entire Western Armenia was left to a perpetrator state but an opportunity arose to put the Armenian population of Eastarn Armenia to sword (disarmament of the frontline, invasion of Turkish troops into the South Caucasus, cooperation of Musavat party of Azerbaijan with the invading Turkish forces, Armenian massacres of Shushi, Baku etc.)

Yerazgavors – a village in Shirak marz of Armenia. Modern Yerazgavors was built in 1976-1984. The old village lay in the location of Bagratuni dynasty’s summer residence. The population of Yerazgavors partly hails from Mush province of Western Armenia and is partly local.

Zangezur – a geographic, historical and cultural area in the south-eastern part of Armenia, partly covering Syunyats or Sisakan regions of Syunik province of Greater Armenia. In the past Zangezur’s territory coincided with Haband province of Syunik (today’s Goris Region), which borders Tsghuk region (now Sisian) from west and Baghkin (Kapan) from south. According to testimonies of historiographer Stephen Orbelyan of Syunyats House, Zangezur was originally called Dzagedzor after patriarch Dzag. With time the name Zangezur spread over most of Syunik and was used for Zangezur region of Elisabethpol governorate of the Russian empire. The mountainous landscape of Zangezur has been definitive in the course of its history and evolvement of cultural peculiarities.

In 1919-1920, the Armenian population of Zangezur led by Garegin Nzhdeh organized armed defense of the Armenians subjected to massacres by the Muslim population in the newly formed Republic ofAzerbaijan and by Turkish regular troops. People of Zangezur also struggled against the Alexandrapol treaty (Decmeber 2, 1920,) endorsed by the government of the Republic of Armenia and provisioned surrender of Zangezur to Azerbaijan. Syunik – Zangezur retained its independence even after Sovietization of Armenia, which enabled a lot of rebels, assaociates of the 1920 February uprising against the Bolsheviks in Armenia to retreat to Syunik and declare it the Mountainous Republic of Armenia, which was conquered by the Red Army only after fierce battles in 1921. Some of the fighters crossed the Persian border, the rest were subjected to severe political persecutions and repressions.

Currently Zangezur includes the regions of Sisian, Goris, Kapan and Meghri, in colloqual language it stands for the current Syunik marz.

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